- curriculum

Optics Kit Activities
  1. light circle
  2. combining colors/color theory
  3. incidence/reflection
  4. refraction
  5. concave mirrors
  6. convex mirrors
  7. concave lens
  8. convex lens


  • 300 billion bits of information/second
  • made from silica (sand)
  • 6 Encyclopedia Britanica's/second
  • 12,000,000,000 television signals can be carried in a singal fiber optic cable
  • 1940's?- trans Atlantic telephone cable
  • bioluminescence (chemiluminescence)- living things that produce light- jellyfish
  • travels by bouncing off the walls of the fiber
  • strands of optically pure glass a thin as a human hair

  • all colored objects reflect light (except black)
  • white light and/or sunlight is made up of "r o y g b i v"
  • each color within the visible spectrum has different wavelengths and frequencies
  • if you see red, it means that the red frequency is reflected back to you, all other frequencies are absorbed
  • a white object reflects back all frequencies, a black one absorbs all frequencies
  • light is both a wave and a particle


- light is a name for a range of EM radiation that can be detected by the human eye
- EM radiation has characteristics like particles and waves ( energy that comes from stars)
- light travels in waves
- amplitude determains the brightness of light
- wavelength determains the color of light
- a laser has a higher amplitude
- the particles of light are called photons
- the speed of light 299 792 458 meters per second


-Gamma rays - high frequency electromagnetic wavelengths (short wavelengths, length of an atomic nucleus) and can cause nuclear damage in contact with living organisms
-X rays - short wavelengths of radiation that can penetrate through objects making them see-throughable
-Ultraviolet rays - electromagnetic waves with higher frequencies than that of the colour violet. This radiation is caused by the sun
-Infrared rays - long wavelength, short frequency. Shows heat levels of objects
-shortwave - Demonstrates bright energy. Similar to UV, Infrared, and Visible Radiation
-AM- wavelength the size of buildings


-is the bending of light
-It is caused by light passing through one transparent medium to another then the light changes speed and
-how much it bends depends on the difference in the refractive index of the mediums
-eg. 1.0 and 1.1 would have a small bend and a 1.0 and a 4.24 would have a big bend
-light sometimes refracts and results in a rainbow


-angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection



-lenses can be used to focus light
-Nimrud lens -oldest lens artifact -3000 years old
-The word lens comes from the Latin name of the lentil
-A lens transmits and refracts light
-Lenses are typically made of glass or transparent plastic
-a lens refracts light by either converging or diverging
-convex lens focuses (converges light)
-concave diverges light


-Compound microscope
-made for magnifying objects
-consists of several lenses forming the object by the lens or combination of lenses positioned near the object

Optical microscope

-also called "light microscope"
-type of compound microscope
-used to magnify small objects
-oldest type of microscope
-easiest to use

Digital microscope

-has a digital CCD camera attached
-connected to LCD or computer monitor
-usually no eyepieces to look at objects directly

Fluorescent microscope

-also called an epifluorescent microscope
-special type of light microscope
-fluorescence and phosphorescence used to view samples and their properties

  • the eye uses the retina to produce an image while the camera uses film
  • a camera and the eye both gathered light and transform it into a picture that we can interpret

  • retina has two kinds of light receptors, cones and rods
  • cones are in the center of the retina (it absorbs strong light and sense colors)
  • rods absorb soft light and sense black and white

Vitreous body
  • is a clear gel-like substance filling eyeball behind lens
  • when you get old the vitreous body shrinks in volume

OPTICAL ILLUSIONS Go down to the Peripheral escalator, How it works: you see that the things move left and right, but if you look several inches above the screen, i moves in a diagonal pattern




  1. Pick a topic from above (ex. fiber optics)
  2. Research the topic thoroughly
    • history of fiber optics
    • science of fiber optics
    • animations explaining fiber optics
    • uses and importance to scoiety of fiber optics
    • disadvantages/advantages of fiber optics
    • maps if applicable
    • inventors, pictures
  3. prepare a photo story to present this information
  4. you must narrate the photo story
  5. use the rubric below to plan and evaluate your project

not meeting
insufficient planning resulted in inadequate content and presentation
adequate planning resulted in adequate content and presentation
excellent planning resulted in excellent content and presentation
student work did not hold the interest of the viewer
student work held the interest of the viewer somewhat
work held the viewers interest exceptionally well
the story was not told in an organised and clear way, with no attention to voice modulation, pausing, emphasis and content
the story was told in a way that was somewhat organised, using some voice modulation pausing, emphasis and content
the story was told in a compelling way with an organised voice using modulation, pausing, emphasis and content
writing was not used effectively to plan the voice and incorporate content
writing was adequate to effectively communicate ideas
writing was used very effectively to create compelling content
content was not meeting expectations
content was adequate
content was exceptional